Mogens Hallwyl

17/01/2007

Kinas udvikling fra 1901 til 1976 set gennem Mao Tes-tung vej mod magten

Filed under: Nyheder og politik — mhallwyl @ 23:58

Er ved at blive redeigeret !!

Noter:

Kina (China) Midtens Rige eller Riget i Midten – (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōngguó (help·info); Tongyong Pinyin: Jhongguó;

Kina har altid (indtil 1842) følt sig som verdens mest kultiverede og civiliserede folk. Det skal nu genoprettes efter genvunden uafhængighed i 1942. Det er mere end en generations selvfølelse der er revet ud af den kinesiske historie.

Kina har en ubrudt historie på ca. 5000 år. Kinesernes psyke og selvforståelse kan være vanskelig at sætte sig ind i. Vi kan få et lille indblik ved at læse kejser Chien Lungs budskab til Kong Geore III (UK) 50 år inden Opiumskrigen sluttede, det var efter at George III havde sendet et gesantskab til det Kejserlige Kinesiske hof. Budskabet er citeret i forfatter H. H. Chang værk (Kina det ukendte – Chiang Kai-Sheks og hans folk) på side 6.

Kinesernes opfattelse af verden var klar. Alt godt kom fra Kina og Kina var centrum for den øvrige verden. C. Bolvig beskriver det i "Bokseroprøret" fra 1903 at tidligt var der vesterlandske købmænd der kom til Kina. Da de trods en meget ugæstfri velkomst kom igen og igen kunne kineserene kun opfatte det på den måde "…at udlændingene var nødt til at komme, fordi han (vesterlændingen) boede i et ufrugtbart og fattigt hjørne af verden. Han kunne ikke undvære kinas te og silke. Endvidere har kineseren fra gammel tid den forestilling om vesterlænderen, at han er rovbegærlig og voldsom".

Opiumskrigen 1839 – 1842. Sluttede med indgåelse af Nanking-traktaten den 29 AUG 1842 mellem den Kejserlige Kinesiske regering og britterne (UK).

100 år efter den 10 OKT 1942 meddeler USA at der kan forhandles om en traktat vedr. øjeblikkelig opgivelse af eksterritorial-rettighederne i Kina. Dette markerer afslutningen af 100 års indskrænkning i den kinesiske suverænitet og uafhængihed.

1890 og frem til i dag begyndende åbenhed, aviser, jernbaner, industri og nyt uddannelsessystem (startende under de seneste to kejsere).

Taiping-oprøret 1850-1864………………….

Interview og studie af de nu åbnede arkiver foretaget af Jung Chang. Jung Chang er født i Yibin (Sichuan) i 1952 og var som ung, rødgardist hvorefter hun arbejdede som landarbejder, barfodslæge, stålarbejder og elektriker før hun begynde sine engelskstudier og blev amanuensis ved Sichuan Universitet. I 1982 fik hun en doktorgrad i lingvistik som den første fra Kina. Hun har senere skrevet den prisbelønnede bog "Vilde svaner" fra 1991.

1917 – 1918 dannedes de moralske anshuelser.

Mancu-dynastiet 1644 ->   ……den kinesiske hestehale stammer fra denne tid (manchuskik).

Putonghua – almindelig tale – officielt i Maos "regeringstid".

Republikken udråbes den 1 JAN 1912 (Peking regeringen). Den sidste kejser Pu-Yi abdicerer.

The Communist Party of China (CPC) was founded in July 1921.

From 1921 to 1949, the CPC led the Chinese people in their arduous armed struggle and finally succeeded in overthrowing the rule of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism and establishing the People’s Republic of China (PRC). After the founding of the PRC, the CPC led the Chinese people of all ethnic groups in defending the independence and security of the country, successfully completing the transition from new democratic revolution to socialist revolution, carrying out systematic large-scale socialist construction, and achieving economic and cultural progress unparalleled in Chinese history.

After the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Party Central Committee at the end of 1978, the country embarked on the biggest change in the history of New China. From 1979, the CPC began to carry out the reform and opening-up policy initiated by Deng Xiaoping. In more than two decades since the initiation of the reform and opening-up, China’s economic and social development has been crowned with remarkable success and the country has taken on a new look. This has been the best period since the founding of the PRC in which the Chinese people have reaped the most material benefits.

The CPC today has more than 66 million members and over 3.5 million primary organizations.

Hu Jintao is the current General Secretary of the Communist Party of China.

Nature

The Communist Party of China is the vanguard of the Chinese working class as well as the Chinese people and the Chinese nation. It is the core of leadership for the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The Party represents the development trend of China’s advanced productive forces, the orientation of China’s advanced culture and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people (the Three Represents).

The Communist Party of China takes Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of Three Represents as its guide to action.

The basic line of the Communist Party of China at the primary stage of socialism is to lead the people of all ethnic groups in a concerted, self-reliant and pioneering effort to turn China into a prosperous, strong, democratic and culturally advanced modern socialist country by making economic development our central task while adhering to the Four Cardinal Principles and persevering in the reform and opening up.

The Principle of Democratic Centralism

Individual Party members are subordinate to the Party organization, the minority is subordinate to the majority, the lower Party organizations are subordinate to the higher Party organizations, and all the constituent organizations and members of the Party are subordinate to the National Congress and the Central Committee of the Party.

The Party’s leading bodies at all levels are elected except for the representative organs dispatched by them and the leading Party members’ groups in non-Party organizations.

The highest leading body of the Party is the National Congress and the Central Committee elected by it. The leading bodies of local Party organizations are the Party congresses at their respective levels and the Party committees elected by them. Party committees are responsible, and report their work, to the Party congresses at their respective levels.

Higher Party organizations shall pay constant attention to the views of lower organizations and the rank-and-file Party members, and solve in good time the problems they raise. Lower Party organizations shall report their work to, and request instructions from, higher Party organizations; at the same time, they shall handle, independently and in a responsible manner, matters within their jurisdiction. Higher and lower Party organizations should exchange information and support and supervise each other. Party organizations at all levels should enable Party members to keep well informed of inner-Party affairs and to have as many opportunities as possible to involve themselves in them.

Party committees at all levels function on the principle of combining collective leadership with individual responsibility based on division of labor. All major issues shall be decided upon by the Party committees after discussion in accordance with the principle of collective leadership, democratic centralism, individual consultations and decision-making through formal meetings. Members of the Party committees should earnestly perform their duties in accordance with the collective decisions taken and division of labor.

The Party forbids all forms of personality cult. It is necessary to ensure that the activities of the Party leaders are subject to the supervision of the Party and the people, and at the same time to uphold the prestige of all the leaders who represent the interests of the Party and the people.

Organization

4.1 Central Organizations of the Party

4.1.1 The National Congress of the Party and The Central Committee of the Party.

The highest leading body of the Party is the National Congress and the Central Committee elected by it. The Central Committee is responsible, and report their work to the National Congress.

The National Congress of the Party is held once every five years and convened by the Central Committee. It may be convened before the normally scheduled date if the Central Committee deems it necessary or if more than one-third of the organizations at the provincial level so request. Except under extraordinary circumstances, the Congress may not be postponed.

The current Central Committee near the end of its term shall determine the number of delegates to the next National Congress of the Party and the procedure governing their election.

The Central Committee of the Party is elected for a term of five years.

The functions and powers of the National Congress of the Party are as follows:

To hear and examine the reports of the Central Committee;

To hear and examine the reports of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection:

To discuss and decide on major questions concerning the Party;

To revise the Constitution of the Party;

To elect the Central Committee;

To elect the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection.

When the National Congress is not in session, the Central Committee carries out its decisions, directs the entire work of the Party and represents the Communist Party of China in its external relations.

4.1.2 The Political Bureau, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau, the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Party, the Military Commission of the Central Committee and the Secretariat of the Central Committee.

The leading bodies of the Central Committee are the Political Bureau, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau, the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Party.

The Political Bureau, the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau and the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Party are elected by the Central Committee at the plenary session.

The General Secretary of the Central Committee must be Member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau.

When the Central Committee is not in session, the Political Bureau and its Standing Committee exercise the functions and powers of the Central Committee.

The General Secretary of the Central Committee is responsible for convening the meetings of the Political Bureau and its Standing Committee and presides over the work of the Secretariat.

The central leading military body of Communist Party of China is the Military Commission of the Central Committee.

The members of the Military Commission of the Central Committee are decided on by the Central Committee.

The Secretariat of the Central Committee is the working body of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee and its Standing Committee. The members of the Secretariat are nominated by the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee and are subject to endorsement by the Central Committee in plenary session.

4.2 Local Organizations of the Party

The Party congress of a province, autonomous region, municipality directly under the Central Government, city divided into districts, or autonomous prefecture is held once every five years.

Local Party congresses are convened by the Party committees at the corresponding levels. Under extraordinary circumstances, they may be held before or after their normally scheduled dates upon approval by the next higher Party committees.

The number of delegates to the local Party congresses at any level and the procedure governing their election are determined by the Party committees at the corresponding levels and should be reported to the next higher Party committees for approval.

The functions and powers of the local Party congresses at all levels are as follows:

To hear and examine the reports of the Party committees at the corresponding levels;

To hear and examine the reports of the commissions for discipline inspection at the corresponding levels;

To discuss and decide on major issues in given areas;

To elect the Party committees and commissions for discipline inspection at the corresponding levels.

Local Party committees at various levels shall, when the Party congresses of the given areas are not in session, carry out the directives of the next higher Party organizations and the decisions of the Party. Congresses at the corresponding levels, direct work in their own areas and submit the work report to the next higher Party committees at regular intervals.

The Party congress of a province, autonomous region, municipality directly under the Central Government, city divided into districts or autonomous prefecture is elected for a term of five years.

The local Party committees at various levels meet in plenary session at least twice a year.

Local Party committees at various levels elect, at their plenary sessions, their standing committees, secretaries and deputy secretaries and report the results to the higher Party committees for approval.

The standing committees of local Party committees at various levels exercise the powers and functions of local Party committees when the latter are not at the session.

4.3 Primary Organizations of the Party

Primary Party organizations are formed in China’s mainland enterprises, rural areas, government departments, schools, scientific research institutes, communities, mass organizations, intermediaries, companies of the People’s Liberation Army and other basic units, where there are at least three full Party members.

In primary organizations, primary Party committees and committees of general Party branches or Party branches are set up as the work requires and according to the number of Party members, subject to approval by the higher Party organizations. A primary Party committee is elected by a general membership meeting or a delegate meeting. The committee of a general Party branch or a Party branch is elected by a general membership meeting.

A Primary Party committee is elected for a term of three to five years, while a general Party branch committee or a Party branch committee is elected for a term of two or three years.

4.4 Party Organs for Discipline Inspection

Party Organs for Discipline Inspection include the leadership of the Central Committee of the Party, the Party’s commissions for discipline inspection at all levels and primary commissions for discipline inspection.

The Party’s Central Commission for Discipline Inspection functions under the leadership of the Central Committee of the Party.

The Party’s local commissions for discipline inspection at all levels and primary commissions for discipline inspection function under the dual leadership of the Party committees at the corresponding levels and the next higher commissions for discipline inspection.

Membership

Members of the Communist Party of China are vanguard fighters of the Chinese working class imbued with communist consciousness. Any Chinese worker, farmer, member of the armed forces, intellectual or any advanced element of other social strata who has reached the age of eighteen and who accepts the Party’s Program and Constitution and is willing to join and work actively in one of the Party organizations, carry out the Party’s decisions and pay membership dues regularly may apply for membership in the Communist Party of China.

New Party members must be admitted through a Party branch, and the principle of individual admission must be adhered to.

An applicant for Party membership must fill in an application form and be introduced by two full Party members. The application must be accepted at a general membership meeting of the Party branch concerned and approved by the next higher Party organization, and the applicant must undergo observation for a year-long probationary period before being granted full membership.

Every Party member, irrespective of position, must be organized into a branch, cell or other specific unit of the Party to participate in the regular activities of the Party organization.

Party members are free to withdraw from the Party. When a Party member asks to withdraw, the Party branch concerned shall, after discussion by its general membership meeting, remove his name from the Party rolls, make the removal public and report it to the next higher Party organization for the record.

Members of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the 16th National Congress of the CPC.

Hu Jintao

Wu Bangguo, Wen Jiabao, Jia Qinglin, Zeng Qinghong

Huang Ju, Wu Guanzheng, Li Changchun, Luo Gan.

The Central Organizations of the CPC
2007-07-10 09:40

1. The National Party Congress

The CPC’s organ of supreme power, the National Party Congress, held once every five years, is convened by the Central Committee. Its functions and powers are to hear and examine the report of the Central Committee, to hear and examine the report of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, to discuss and decide on major issues of the Party, to revise the Party constitution and to elect the Central Committee and the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection.

2. The Central Committee

It is elected by the National Party Congress. When the National Party Congress is not in session, the Central Committee leads all the work of the Party and represents the CPC outside the Party. It is elected for a term of five years.

3. The Political Bureau, Its Standing Committee and the General Secretary

They are all elected by the plenary session of the Central Committee. When the plenum of the Central Committee is not in session, the Political Bureau and its Standing Committee exercise the functions and powers of the Central Committee. The Secretariat of the Central Committee is the administrative body of the Political Bureau and its Standing Committee. The general secretary of the Central Committee is responsible for calling sessions of both the Political Bureau and its Standing Committee, and is in charge of the work of the Secretariat of the Central Committee.

Members of the Central Military Commission of the CPC are decided on by the Central Committee.
4. Under the Central Committee of the CPC are such offices and departments as the General Affairs Office, the Organization Department, the Publicity Department, the International Liaison Department, the United Front Work Department and the Policy Research Office (See the following chart).

Local organizations of the CPC include congresses of various provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government, cities with districts, autonomous prefectures, counties (banners), autonomous counties and cities without districts as well as districts of cities which are held once every five years. The committees elected by the congresses listed above serve a term of five years. Grassroots organizations of the Party, where there are more than three full members of the Party, are set up in enterprises, rural villages, organizations, schools, research institutes, neighborhoods, the People’s Liberation Army companies and other basic units.

Discipline inspection commissions are also set up at various levels of the CPC. Their major tasks are to maintain CPC’s constitution and other inner Party rules and regulations, assist Party committees to strengthen the Party style, examine the implementation of the lines, policies, principles and decisions of the Party. The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection works under the Party Central Committee. The local discipline inspection commissions work under the dual leadership of the Party committees at the same level and discipline inspection commissions at the next higher level. The term of office of discipline inspection commissions is the same as that of the Party committees.

As of June 2002, the CPC had a total membership of 66.355 million belonging to about 3.5 million grassroots organizations.

The People’s Daily is the paper of the CPC Central Committee while Seeking Truth is the Party’s magazine.

Leadership of 16th Central Committee
2007-07-10 09:30
General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee

Hu Jintao

Members of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau

Hu Jintao

Wu Bangguo

Wen Jiabao

Jia Qinglin

Zeng Qinghong

Huang Ju (dead)

Wu Guanzheng

Li Changchun

Luo Gan

Members of the Political Bureau

Wang Lequan, Wang Zhaoguo, Hui Liangyu(Hui), Liu Qi

Liu Yunshan, Li Changchun, Wu Yi(female), Wu Bangguo

Wu Guanzheng, Zhang Lichang, Zhang Dejiang, Chen Liangyu

Luo Gan, Zhou Yongkang, Hu Jintao, Yu Zhengsheng

He Guoqiang, Jia Qinglin, Guo Boxiong, Huang Ju (dead)

Cao Gangchuan Zeng Qinghong Zeng Peiyan Wen Jiabao
Alternate Member of the Political Bureau

Wang Gang

Members of the Secretariat of the Central Committee

Zeng Qinghong, Liu Yunshan, Zhou Yongkang, He Guoqiang

Wang Gang, Xu Caihou, He Yong

Central Military Commission of the CPC

Chairman: Hu Jintao

Vice Chairmen: Guo Boxiong, Cao Gangchuan, Xu Caihou

Central Commission for Discipline Inspection of the CPC

Secretary: Wu Guanzheng

Deputy Secretaries:

He Yong, Xia Zanzhong, Li Zhilun, Zhang Shutian

Liu Xirong, Zhang Huixin, Liu Fengyan

Ideological and throretical basis of CPC
2007-07-10 09:20

The Communist Party of China (CPC) takes Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thought of Three Represents as its guide to action and theoretical bases.

Marxism-Leninism reveals the universal laws governing the development of history of human society. It analyzes the contradictions inherent in the capitalist system that it is incapable of resolving internally and shows that socialist society will inevitably replace capitalist society and ultimately develop into communist society.

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels cofounded the theory of the proletarian political party, in which they expounded the basic tenets of the Marxist theory of party building and laid the theoretical basis for building the proletarian party. This constitutes the first monument of the Marxist theory of party building.

In his practical work of leading the socialist revolution and construction in Russia, Lenin both adhered to the basic tenets of the Marxist theory of party building and creatively solved a series of new problems arising in the building of the proletarian party. His foremost achievement was the creation of a preliminary theory for the building of the proletarian party in office, which constitutes the second monument of the Marxist theory of party building.

The Chinese Communists have untiringly striven to integrate Marxism with the concrete practice in China and adapted it to Chinese conditions.

Combining Marxism-Leninism with the concrete practice of the Chinese revolution, the first generation of the CPC’s central collective leadership, with Comrade Mao Zedong as its core, settled such basic questions as the nature, motive force and object of the new-democratic revolution and the road to socialism in China. And Mao Zedong Thought was thus established, which is Marxism-Leninism applied and developed in China.

Mao Zedong Thought consists of theoretical principles concerning the revolution and construction in China, which have been proved correct by practice, and the lessons of experience learned therein; and it constitutes the crystallized, collective wisdom of the CPC.

On the basis of the Marxist-Leninist theory of party building and China’s specific conditions, Mao Zedong established the theory for building a proletarian party in a semi-colonial, semi-feudal society constituted mainly of peasants and petty bourgeoisie.

The most outstanding contributions Mao Zedong made to the Marxist theory of party building are: First, he placed great emphasis on the purpose of building the Party, which is to serve the people wholeheartedly; and second, he attached great importance to improving the Party’s style of work and insisted that the Party be built ideologically first. Mao Zedong’s theory of party building is the first historic leap of the Marxist theory of party building in China.

After the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh CPC Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communists, with Comrade Deng Xiaoping as their chief representative, reviewed their experience, both positive and negative, since the founding of the People’s Republic.

They emancipated their minds, sought truth from facts, shifted the focus of the work of the whole Party onto economic development and carried out reform and opening to the outside world; this ushered in a new era of development in the socialist cause. They gradually formulated the line, principles and policies concerning building socialism with Chinese characteristics and clarified the basic issues regarding establishing, consolidating and developing socialism in China, thereby creating Deng Xiaoping Theory.

This theory is the outcome of integrating the basic tenets of Marxism-Leninism with the practical conditions in present-day China and the characteristics of the times; it is a continuation and development of Mao Zedong Thought under new historical conditions.

Deng Xiaoping Theory provides the preliminary answer to the question of great theoretical and practical importance: What is socialism and how can we build it? Deng Xiaoping’s theory of how to build a party in office in the new era constitutes a complete and scientific system. His chief contribution to the Marxist theory of party building is that he defined the objective of Party building under the conditions of reform and opening up: "to build our Party into a militant Marxist party and a powerful central force that leads all the people in the country in building socialist material and spiritual civilization." Under the direct guidance of Deng Xiaoping’s theory of party building, the CPC made impressive achievements in the new era in leading all the people in the country in wholeheartedly carrying out the socialist modernization drive. History has shown that Deng Xiaoping’s theory of party building is the second historic leap of the Marxist theory of party building in China.

Since the Fourth Plenary Session of the Thirteenth CPC Central Committee in 1989, the third generation of the central collective leadership, with Comrade Jiang Zemin as its core, has held high the great banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory, stayed on the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics and unswervingly concentrated on economic development.

China’s economic strength and national defense capabilities and the cohesion of the Chinese nation have increased continuously, and impressive achievements have been made in all fields of endeavor.

On the basis of the basic Marxist theory of party building, Comrade Jiang Zemin set forth the new theory of party building that calls for the CPC to always represent the development trend of China’s advanced productive forces, the orientation of China’s advanced culture and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people.

In addition, he elevated this theory to the position of being the foundation of the Party, the cornerstone for its governance and the source of its strength. At its Sixteenth National Congress in November 2002, the Party established the important thought of Three Represents, together with Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory, as the long-term guiding ideology that it must uphold.

That was a historic decision. This thought carries forward the basic principles of scientific socialism in an all-round way and upholds the lofty ideal of communism, and its ultimate values and goals are entirely consistent with Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory.

The Three Represents adheres to dialectical materialism and historical materialism, embodies Marxism’s theoretical characteristic of advancing with the times and is imbued with the same spirit as the Marxist stand, viewpoint and methodology. This thought of Three Represents constitutes an integral whole that comprehensively reflects the Party’s basic theory, line and program. This thought enriches and develops the basic tenets of Marxism with a series of new ideas, views and theses and profoundly embodies the integration of history with reality in the development of the theory of Marxism.

The important thought of Three Represents takes the theory of building the party in office as its main subject, promoting economic, political, and cultural advancement under socialism with Chinese characteristics and all-round social progress as its basic content, and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation as its goal. To a great extent, it systematically answers these questions of our times: What kind of a party should we build and how can we build it? This thought reveals the laws concerning governance by the Communist Party, building socialism and developing human society, and it constitutes a new theoretical basis that guides all our undertakings toward success. At its Sixteenth National Congress, the Party established the important thought of Three Represents as the long-term guiding ideology that it must uphold. This shows that the CPC has become more mature in its theorizing, more attentive in its practice and more successful in its undertakings. The important thought of Three Represents has ushered in a new stage in the adaptation of Marxism to Chinese conditions.

The 12th Party Congress
2007-07-10 09:56

Date: September 1-11, 1982

Place: Beijing

Number of delegates: 1,600 full delegates and 149 alternate delegates

Party membership: 39.65 million

Major contents: The congress was aimed at, by summing up the historical victory since the 11th Party Congress and eliminating the negative effects of the chaos of the "cultural revolution", defining a correct road, strategy, principles and policies for creating a new situation of socialist modernization construction. Deng Xiaoping made an opening speech. Hu Yaobang made a report on behalf of the 11th Central Committee. Ye Jianying and Chen Yun both delivered important speeches concerning the cooperation between the senior and young officials and the replacement of senior by young officials. Li Xiannian addressed the closing session. In his opening address, Deng Xiaoping put forward the idea of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. The congress outlined the general task of the Party in the new historical period as follows:
to unite the people of all ethnic groups in working hard and self-reliantly to achieve, step by step, the modernization of industry, agriculture, national defense and science and technology and to make China a culturally and ideologically advanced and highly democratic socialist country. It also set the economic goal for the period from 1981 to the end of this century, that is, under the prerequisite of constantly improving economic efficiency, to quadruple the annual industrial and agricultural output value of the country, i.e. from 710 billion yuan in 1980 to about 2,800 billion yuan in the year of 2000, so that people can enjoy a better standard of living. The congress also adopted the new Party Constitution.

The congress elected a new Central Committee composed of 210 members and 138 alternate members, a Central Advisory Commission composed of 172 members and a Central Commission for Discipline Inspection composed of 132 members. At the First Plenary Session of the 12th CPC Central Committee, Hu Yaobang, Ye Jianying, Deng Xiaoping, Zhao Ziyang, Li Xiannian and Chen Yun were elected Standing Committee members of the Political Bureau, and Hu Yaobang general secretary of the Central Committee. Deng Xiaoping was appointed chairman of the Central Military Commission as well as chairman of the CPC Central Advisory Commission. Chen Yun was appointed first secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection.

 

da tong, det kongfuzianske ideelle samfund.
shenshih, landadelen
bu-zhen, utroskab.
suo-biao, skarpt tveægget kniv med langt skaft som en lanse.

Kinas største flod Yangtsekiang.

 

Mao Zedong (Tse-tung)

Mao Zedong (Tes-tung) betyder "kaste glans over østen". Født 26 DEC 1893 og døde i 1976 i et landbrugsområde kaldet Shaoshan ca. 15 km syd-vest for Changsha (Hunan). I de mange første år opvoksede han og arbejde på sin fars gård. Maos far hed Yi – Chang født 1870.

Mao studerede i sine (meget) unge år klassisk Kong Fuzi (confuciansk uddannelse). Det var på den tid vigtigt at bestå de kejserlige eksamener og BLIVE "Mandarin".
Maos kælenavn var "Stendrengen" – Shi san  ya-zi.  Mao var Buddhist til han var ca. 16 år.

Maos mors familie er af navnet Wen.

Mao udviser psykopatiske træk. Han mente at samvittighed kunne gå ad helvede til, hvis den var i modstrid med hans impulser.
Eftersom samvittighed altid indebærer et vist hensyn til andre mennesker og ikke er en naturlig følge af hedonisme, afviste Mao begrebet. Mao udtalte "Alle hensyn må ske udelukkende af hensyn til en selv og afgjort ikke for at efterkomme ydre moralkrav eller såkaldt ansvarlige følelser".

Der er ikke umiddelbart belæg for at sige at Mao var klinisk psykopat, men han udviste (særdeles voldsomme) autrære holdninger og totalt manglende lederskab. [pp 16-17]

Absolut selviskhed og uansvarlighed var kernen i Maos livssyn. Disse egenskaber anså han for at være forbeholdt "Store helte" – en gruppe han udnævnte sig selv til at tilhøre.

Det andet centrale træk i Maos karakter, som han gav klart udtryk for nu (1917 – 1918), var hans glæde ved omvæltning og ødelæggelse. "Store krige vil finde sted, så længe der findes jord og himmel, og vil aldrig blive udryddet". Han mente at idealet om en verden med Stor Lighed og Harmoni (da tong, det kongfuzianske ideelle samfund) er en misforståelse. Det var klart ønsketænkning fra Maos side og hans handlinger for at komme til magten viser også dette.

Man kan sige om Mao at han bar ikke nag – men han huskede fandens godt. Det kom til udtryk i hævnen på sine politiske modstandere i 1968 – også dem der i den svære tid havde været skiftevis for og imod ham.

Udsigten til fysisk arbejde afskrækkede ham.

Gift med sin kusine [Luo] i 1908 som døde i 1910.
Gift igen med Kai-hui……. måtte finde sig i meget bl.a. Maos ustandselige utroskab.

Maos søn An-ying (der sener får en hård skæbne) fødes 24 OKT 1922.

 

Fra omkring 1928 og til sin død (1976) var Mao ansvarlig for godt 70 mill. døde kinesere.

Begreber i tiden og Maos tanker

CCP (Kinas kommunistiske parti) dannes i 1923 og i deres charter indgik afskaffelse af dødsstraffen, hvilket står i klart modlys til CCP handlinger op gennem tiden.

Det historiske forløb

1919, Moskva påvirker udviklingen i mod dannelse af CCP (Kinas Kommunistiske Parti) med penge, mandskab og våben.

1920, Moskva optrapper bestræbelserne på at opildne til en revolution i Kina. Moskva betalte ganske mange penge til de delegerede (CCP møder) og til partiledelsen (på det tidspunkt er Mao ikke med i partiledelsen).

Den 2. kongres (1923) bliver CCP charter med formel godkendelse af tilslutning til Komintern (russiske internationale kommunistiske organ) og med styring fra Moskva.

Moskav opfordrer i 1925 til bondeopstand mod landadelen (Shenshih). Mao nærer ikke sønderlig interesse for bønderne og deres vilkår.

JUL 1926 går nationalisthæren under ledelse af Chinang Kai-Shek fra Canton mod nord (Nordekspeditionen) med mål at vælte "Peking regeringen".
Stalin er på dette tidspunkt førstemand i Moskva og dikterede personligt politikken over for Kina.
Revolution efter Sovjettisk møster og samfundsorden og Moskvas ønske, bryder sammen. Nationalisterne sidder nu på magten med generalisimo Chiang Kai-Shek som lederen. Selvom de ikke har "kontrol" med hele (alle provinser) i Kina. Der er mange lokale krigsherrere der stadig styrer lokalt uden om centralregeringen.

Chiang Kai-Shek danner Nationalistpartiet og 12 APR 1927 renser han nationalistpartiet for kommunister. (Han styrer til 1949 hvor han fordrives til Taiwan af Den Røde Hær – 22 år).

Mao holder en del politiske møder i sommeren 1927 (33 år) han beslutter at holde sig til CCP og bruge russerne.

Det meget omtalte Nanchang-oprør var iværksat af Komintern på Stalins personlige ordre. Ham der stod for levering af russiske våben var Anastas Mikojan.

Efterårshøst-opstanden……………….

 

 

……….

13 JAN 1940 opfordrer Mao Chou En-Li der opholdt sig hos Chiang Kai-Shek i Chongqing, til at forberede det endelige styrt af Chang – uden Moskvas vidende. Det sker efter han har myrdet det meste af N4A korpset i en masakre som Mao personlig var ansvarlig for.
Stalin er stærkt iriteret på Mao og hans hysteriske henvendelser for at få Moskvas støtte til at styrte Chiang.

 

 

 

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